Hà Giang is a province in the Northeast region of Vietnam. It is located in the far north of the country, and contains Vietnam’s northernmost point. It shares a 270 km long border with Yunnan province of southern China, and thus is known as Vietnam’s final frontier. The province covers an area of 7,945.8 square kilometres and as of 2008 it had a population of 705,100 people.
The provincial capital, also called Hà Giang, is connected by Highway 2 and is 320 km away from Hanoi. The border crossing is at Thanh Thủy, 25 km from the capital, Hà Giang city. It is one of the poorest provinces of Vietnam as it has mountainous topography with the least potential for agricultural development.
The province borders China with a length of over 270 kilometres (170 mi); the border gate is known as the Thanh Thủy. In addition, there are three smaller gates namely, the Phó Bảng, the Xín Mần and Săm Pun.
looking biking tours in vietnam , doing its in Hà Giang is bounded by Cao Bằng, Tuyên Quang, Lào Cai, and Yên Bái provinces and has common international border with China in the north. Hà Giang has many high rocky mountains, limestone formations and springs; the important mountains are the Cam and Mo Neo. The major rivers of the region are the Lô River (Hà Giang town is located on its left bank) and Mien River.
The topography of the province of Hà Giang is fairly complex with “temperate, but highly localized montane weather patterns create variable conditions among different regions”. It has impressive limestone and granite peaks and outcrops. It has three regions. Climatically, it has two seasons, dry and monsoon, dependent on the altitude of the region. The two northern Indochinese climatic zones on the border influence the climate in that part of the province. The lower areas in the province comprise low hills, the Lô River Valley and the town of Hà Giang. In Cao Bồ district, dry season lasts from mid-September until the end of May, and the balance period of the year is the rainy season. However, in Du Già district the wet season sets in one month earlier. The average annual temperature in the provincial capital of Hà Giang is 22.78 °C (73.00 °F); the monthly averages range from a low of 15.48 °C (59.86 °F) in January to a high of 27.88 °C (82.18 °F) in July. The annual rainfall in Hà Giang town is 2,430.1 millimetres (95.67 in); the monthly average varies from a low of 31.5 millimetres (1.24 in) in December to a high of 515.6 millimetres (20.30 in) in July. The average annual humidity level is 84%.
Hà Giang has many mountains, including the two highest peaks, namely, the Tây Côn Lĩnh (2,419 metres (7,936 ft)) and the Kiều Liêu Ti (2,402 metres (7,881 ft)) and forests that provide lumber. It has about 1,000 species of herbal plants. Fauna include tigers, peafowl, pheasants, and pangolin. The town of Hà Giang was heavily damaged during the 1979 war with China[clarification needed] but has since been rebuilt.
Cultivated fields and livestock are generally found in elevations below 800 m. Between 800 metres (2,600 ft) and 950 metres (3,120 ft) elevation, grasses and wood shrubs (maximum height of 3 metres (9.8 ft)) are recorded. Primary forest in patches with trees (30 metres (98 ft) high and 50 centimetres (20 in) diameter) is found above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) elevation with canopy of about 80% closed. This forest has dense undergrowth with large vines, tree ferns and rhododendrons. Banana, bamboo and secondary scrub grow on both sides of foot tracks in the forests. The forest also has an abundance of cascading streams, seepage streams from lime stone formations, waterfalls, glides, and pools. The stiff lime stone vertical rock face is seen above 1100 m on the northeast face of Mt Muong Cha, while its southwest slope exhibits a much gentler grade, and is converted into agricultural fields. Above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) elevation, there is a montane mixed semideciduous and evergreen cloud forest. This forest has an understory of Ericaceae with shrub and epiphytic species of rhododendron and vaccinium. Species of Lauraceae, with Ericaceae and Oleaceae (at higher elevations with taxa in the Fagaceae, Primulaceae (formerly Myrsinaceae) and Araliaceae are also recorded. Most of the tree trunks are covered with bryophyte mosses in this zone.
Archaeological excavations carried out near Hà Giang town at Doi Thang (Pine Hill) have established the region’s antiquity to about 3,000 years back. During the Bronze Age Tay Yu tribals (of the, with culturally rich traditions ruled over the region; Archaeological findings in the form of bronze drums of that age used for ceremonial purposes is traced even to its present use by the Lô Lô and Pu Peo tribes of the region (Mèo Vạc, Hà Giang province).
What was later called Hà Giang Province by the French was part of bộ Tân Hưng[disambiguation needed] in ancient times, one of 15 bộ in the nation of Văn Lang. During the Ming Dynasty occupation of Vietnam, at the start of the 15th century, it was known as the district of Bình Nguyên, before being changed.
to Bình Nguyên in 1473, and later renamed châu Vị Xuyên. The French occupied this region in 1886, establishing their military garrison on the east bank of the Lô River and which became later in 1905 one of the four major military establishments in French Indochina in North Vietnam. The Vietnamese Dao tribals rebelled against the French colonial rule first in 1901 led by Triệu Tiến Kiến and Triệu Tài Lộc, which was quelled, and the former was killed in the war. However, in 1913, Triệu Tài Lộc organized another rebellion with the help of Triệu Tiến Tiến, another member of his clan, which lasted for two years till 1915. Their slogan was “No Corvees, no taxes for the French; drive out the French to recover our country; liberty for the Dao.” This revolt was known as the “White Hat Revolt” since the Vietnamese carried a white flag engraved with “four ideograms to Quốc Bách Kỹ” (meaning “White Flag of the Fatherland”). The rebellion spread to Tuấn Quang, Lào Cai and Yên Bái. In 1915 the French ruthlessly suppressed the rebellion, deporting many Vietnamese and hanging at least 67″rebels”.
The history of the H’Mông Kings of the northern region of the province bordering China (Đồng Văn and Mèo Vạc) is also integral to the province as the Hmong people have dominated the region from the late 18th century. The Vương family of the Huang clan established their rule at Đồng Văn and Mèo Vạc, which was endorsed by the Nguyễn Kings.
During French colonial rule, French further supported the King to keep their hold on the border territory. Vương Chính Đức was recognized as the king of the H’Mông people in 1900. A palace befiting the king was built between 1902–03, at Sà Phìn (16 km west of Đồng Văn town) by inducting Chinese architects. The King’s loyalty to the French was evident in the support that the French got from him during their campaign to put down a rebellion launched by the local tribes. In recognition, the King was given the rank of a General of the French Army (a fully uniformed King’s picture is seen in the interior rooms of their palace).
The increasing opposition by the Vietnamese to the French rule saw the King adopting a neutral stance. Vương Chú Sển who succeeded his father after the latter’s death in 1944, however, pledged support to Hồ Chí Minh. The historical palace of the Vương King was built in the traditional norms of Northeast Asian royal palaces. The palace built on the “Geomantic principles” has four double storied wings planned in 19th-century southern Chinese town house style with “mui luyen” (“yin-yang”) tiles. The two wings are linked by three open courtyards. A moat surrounds the palace. Tombs of the royal family members, which are intricately carved in wood are located outside the palace walls. Only the walls of the buildings are made of bricks, while the other components of the buildings are made of wood.
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